Norman Mailer’s “The White Negro: Superficial Reflections on the Hipster”: A Selective Bibliography


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Adams, Laura. Existential Battles: The Growth of Norman Mailer. Athens, OH: Ohio UP, 1976.—, ed. Will the Real Norman Mailer Please Stand Up? Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1974.

Ahearn, Allen. “Collecting Mailer.” The Mailer Review, vol. 3, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 414-443.

Albert, Judith Clavir, and Stewart Edmund Albert, editors. The Sixties Papers: Documents of a Rebellious Decade. NY: Praeger, 1984.

Alvarez, A. “The Literature of the Holocaust.” Commentary, 38.5 (Nov. 1, 1964), pp. 6+

Auchincloss, Eve and Nancy Lynch. “An Interview with Norman Mailer.” Mademoiselle 52 (February 1961), pp. 160-63.

Baldwin, James. “The Black Boy Looks at the White Boy.” Esquire, 55, no. 5 (1961), pp. 102-06.

Back, Les. “The ‘White Negro’ Revisited: Race and Masculinities in South London.” Dislocating Masculinity: Comparative Ethnographies. Andrea Cornwall, and Nancy Lindisfarne, editors. NY: Routledge, pp. 171-183.

Bailey, J. Norman Mailer: Quick Change Artist. NY: Harper & Row, 1979.

Balbert, P. “From Lady Chatterley’s Lover to The Deer Park: Lawrence, Mailer, and the Dialectic of Erotic Risk.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 22, no. 1, Spring 1980, pp. 67-81.

Begiebing, R.J., and Philip Bufithis. “A Dialogue on Mailer’s Novels.” Mailer Review, vol. 2, no. 1, Fall 2008, pp. 225-264.

Bernstein, Mashey. “The Heart of the Nation: Jewish Values in the Fiction of Norman Mailer.” The Mailer Review, vol. 3, no. 1, Fall 2008, pp. 376-884.

Bird, Caroline. “Born 1930: The Unlost Generation.” Harper’s Bazaar, vol. 90, issue 2943, Feb. 1957, pp. 104+.

Bishop, Sarah. “The Life and Death of the Celebrity Author in Maidstone.” The Mailer Review, vol. 6, no. 1, Fall 2012, pp. 288-308.

Braudy, Leo. “Norman Mailer: The Pride of Vulnerability.” Introduction. Norman Mailer: A Collection of Critical Essays. Leo Braudy, editor. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972

Broer, Lawrence R. “Identity Crisis: A State of the Union Address.” The Mailer Review, vol. 2, no. 1, Fall 2008, pp. 364-375.

Bromwich, David. “Norman Mailer (1924-2007).” Dissent, vol. 55, no. 2, Spring 2008, pp. 97-99.

Bufithis, Philip H. Norman Mailer. Modern Literature Monographs. New York: Ungar, 1978.

Campbell, James. Exiled in Paris: Richard Wright, James Baldwin, Samuel Beckett, and Others on the Left Bank. NY: Scribner, 1995.

Castronovo, David. “Norman Mailer as Midcentury Advertisement.” New England Review, vol. 24, no. 4, Fall 2003, pp. 179-186. 

Chandarlapaty, Raj. “Dreams, Death, and Bottle-Break: Modernist Ethnopoetics and the Beatnik Quest for Ascesis.” The Mailer Review, vol. 7, no. 1, Fall 2013, pp. 279-294.

—. “Through the Lens of the Beatniks: Norman Mailer and the Modern American Man’s Quest for Self-Realization.” The Mailer Review, vol. 5, no. 1, Fall 2011, pp. 231-247.

Charters, Ann, editor. Introduction. Beat Down to Your Soul: What Was the Beat Generation? NY: Penguin Books, 2001, pp. xv-xxxvii.

Charters, Samuel. “Hipsters, Flipsters, and Finger-Poppin’ Daddies: A Note on His Lordship, Lord Buckley, the Hippest of the Hipsters.” Beat Down to Your Soul: What Was the Beat Generation? Ann Charters, editor. NY: Penguin Books, 2001, pp. 97-109.

Cleaver, Eldridge. Soul on Ice. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1968.

Cobb, Russell, ed. The Paradox of Authenticity in a Globalized World, 2014. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.

Cohen, Sara Jo. “Making Masculinity and Unmasking Jewishness: Norman Mailer’s Wild 90 and Beyond the Law.” The Mailer Review, vol. 5, no. 1, Fall 2011, pp. 183-198.

Cook, Bruce. The Beat Generation: The Tumultuous 50s Movement and Its Impact on Today. NY: Quill, William Morrow, 1994.

Cotkin, George. Existential America. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

—. “History’s Moral Turn.” Journal of the History of Ideas, vol. 69, no. 2, Apr. 2008, pp. 293-315.

—. “The Photographer in the Beat-Hipster idiom: Robert Frank’s The Americans.” American Studies, vol. 26, no. 1, Spring 1985, pp. 19-33.

Curley, Thomas F. “The Quarrel with Time in American Fiction.” Review of Advertisements for Myself by Norman Mailer, The American Scholar, vol. 29, no. 4, Autumn 1960, pp. 552+.

Dalhby, Tracy. “’The White Negro’ Revisited: The Demise of the Indispensable Hipster.” The Mailer Review, vol. 5, no. 1, Fall 2011, pp. 218-230.

Davis, Kimberly Chabot. Beyond the White Negro: Empathy and Anti-Racist Reading. Chicago: Univ. of Illinois Press, 2014.

Dearborn, Mary V. Mailer: A Biography. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999.

De Mott, Benjamin. “Reading They’ve Liked.” The Hudson Review, vol. 13, no.1, Spring 1960, pp. 143-148.

Dickstein, Morris. Leopards in the Temple: The Transformation of American Fiction, 1945-1970. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2002.

Dinerstein, Joel, and Frank H. Goodyear III. American Cool. NY: National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Delmonico Books, 2008.

Douglas, Ann. “Punching a Hole in the Big Lie: the Achievement of William S. Burroughs.” Introduction. Word Virus: The William S. Burroughs Reader. James Grauerholz, and Ira Silverburg, editors. NY: Grove Press, 1998. pp. xv-xxix.

Driver, Justin. “”Cambridge Diarist: Class Act.” New Republic, November 25, 2002, p.42.

Duff, Anthony. “Psychopathy and Moral Understanding.” American Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 14, no. 3, July 1977, pp. 189-200.

Duncombe, Stephen, and Maxwell Tremblay, editors. White Riot: Punk Rock and the Politics of Race. London: Verso, 2011.

Dupee, F.W. “The American Norman Mailer.” Review of Advertisements for Myself by Norman Mailer. Commentary, vol. 29, no. 2 (Feb., 1960), pp. 128-32.

Edmundson, Mark. “Romantic Self-Creations: Mailer and Gilmore in The Executioner’s Song.” Contemporary Literature, vol. 31, no. 4, Winter 1990, pp. 434-447.

Ehrlich, Robert. Norman Mailer: The Radical as Hipster. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1978.

Escoffier, Jeffrey. “Homosexuality and the Sociological Imagination: The 1950s and 1960s.” A Queer World: The Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies Reader. Martin Duberman, editor. NY: NYU Press, 1997, pp. 248-261.

Farbar, Jennifer L. “Mailer on Mailer.” Esquire, 105 (June 1986). pp. 238+.

Finholt, Richard D. “’Otherwise How Explain?’ Norman Mailer’s New Cosmology.” Modern Fiction Studies, vol. 17, no. 3, Fall 1971, p. 375.

Finkelstein, Sidney. “Existential and Social Demands: Norman Mailer and James Baldwin.” Existentialism and Alienation in American Literature. NY: International Publishers, 1965, pp. 269-284.

Ford, Philip. “Somewhere/Nowhere: Hipness as an Aesthetic.” The Musical Quarterly, vol. 86, no. 1, Spring 2002, pp. 49-81.

Foreman, Joel. “Ideology, Culture, and Character: 1945-1960.” American Quarterly, vol. 45, no. 1, Mar. 1993, pp. 176-186.

Fried, Lewis. “The Image of the Black in Jewish-American Fiction: The Other Tradition.” Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies, vol. 12, no. 2, Winter 1994, pp. 36-49.

Fulford, Bob. “Mailer, McLuhan and Muggeridge: On Obscenity.” The Realist, 83 (October 1968), pp. 116-138.

Fulgham, Richard Lee. “The Wise Blood of Norman Mailer: An Interpretation and Defense of Why Are We in Vietnam?The Mailer Review, vol. 2, no. 1, Fall 2008, pp. 337-347.

Glenday, Michael K. Norman Mailer. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1995.

Glicksburg, Charles L. “Norman Mailer: The Angry Young Novelist in America.” Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature, vol. 1, no. 1, Winter 1960, pp. 25-34.

Glueck, Sheldon and Eleanore T. Glueck. Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency. NY: Commonwealth Fund, 1950

Gordon, Andrew M. An American Dreamer: A Psychoanalytic Study of the Fiction of Norman Mailer. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1980.

—. “Last of the Late Romantics.” Review of Norman Mailer’s Later Fictions: Ancient Evenings through The Castle in the Forest,” John Whalen-Bridge, editor, The Mailer Review, vol. 3, no. 1, Fall 2011, pp.433-439.

Greif, Mark, Kathleen Ross, and Dayna Tottorici, editors. What Was the Hipster? A Sociological Investigation. NY: n+1 Foundation, 2010.

Grimsted, David. “The Jekyll-Hyde Complex in Studies of American Popular Culture.” Reviews in American History, vol. 14, no. 3, Sept. 1986, pp. 428-435.

Gutman, Stanley T. Mankind in Barbary: The Individual and Society in the Novels of Norman Mailer. Hanover, NH: The University Press of New England, 1975

Hale, Grace Elizabeth. A Nation of Outsiders: How the Middle Class Fell in Love with Rebellion in Post-War America. NY: Oxford UP, 2011.

Hamilton, Geoff. “Between Mailer and DeLillo: The ‘affectless person’ in Robert Stone’s A Hall of Mirrors.” Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory, vol. 65, no. 2, Summer 2009, pp. 99-116.

Hannerz, Ulf. “Roots of Black Manhood.” Trans-Action , vol.6, issue 11, Oct. 1969, pp. 13-21.

Harap, Louis.  In the Mainstream: The Jewish Presence in Twentieth-Century American Literature, 1950s-1980s. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Harper, Howard.M. Desperate Faith: A Study of Bellow, Salinger, Mailer, Baldwin, and Updike. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Hassan, Ihab. “The Character of Post-War Fiction in America.” The English Journal, vol. 51, no. 1 (Jan., 1962), pp. 1-8.

Hebdige, Dick. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. NY: Routledge, 1991.

Hoffman, Frederick J. “Norman Mailer and the Revolt of the Ego: Some Observations on Recent American Literature.” Existentialism in the ’50s, vol. 1, no. 3, Autumn 1960, pp 5-12.

Holmes, Colin. “Psychopathic Disorder: A Category Mistake?” Journal of Medical Ethics, vol.17, no. 2, June 1977, pp. 77-85.

Holmes, John Clellon. “The Game of the Name.” Passionate Opinions. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas, 1988, pp. 78-94.

—. “The Philosophy of the Beat Generation.” Esquire, vol. 49, no. 2, (Feb. 1958), pp. 38+.

Holton, Robert. “’The Sordid Hipsters of America’”: Beat Culture and the Folds of Heterogeneity.” Reconstructing the Beats. Jennie Skerl, editor. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, pp. 11-27.

Hyman, Stanley Edgar. “Dangers and Limitations of Mass Culture”. Daedalus, vol. 89, no. 2, Spring 1960, pp. 377-387.

Kaufmann, Donald L. “The Long Happy Life of Norman Mailer.” Modern Fiction Studies, vol. 17, no. 3, Fall 1971, pp. 347-59.

—. “Norman Mailer in ‘God’s Attic’.” The Mailer Review, vol. 2, no. 1, Fall 2008, pp. 298-312.

—. Norman Mailer: The Countdown (The First Twenty Years). Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1969.

Kazin, Alfred. “Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Literary Culture.” Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalytic Review vol. 45, nos. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1958, pp. 41-51. 

Kheshti, Rashanak. “Musical Miscegenation and the Logic of Rock and Roll: Homosocial Desire and Racial Productivity in ‘A Paler Side of White’.” American Quarterly, vol. 60, no.4, Dec. 2008, pp. 1037-1055.

Lee, Benjamin. “Avant-Garde Poetry as Subcultural Practice: Mailer and Di Prima’s Hipsters.” New Literary History, vol. 41, no. 4, Autumn 2010, pp. 775-794.

Leeds, Barry H. The Enduring Vision of Norman Mailer. Bainbridge Island, WA: Pleasure Boat Studio, 2002.

—. The Structured Vision of Norman Mailer. NY: New York Univ. Press, 1969.

Lehan, Richard. “French and American Philosophical and Literary Existentialism: A Selected Check List”. Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature, vol. 1, no. 3, Autumn, 1960, pp.74-88.

Leigh, Nigel. Radical Fictions and the Novels of Norman Mailer. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1990.

Leland, John. Hip: The History. NY: Harper Collins, 2004.

Lennon, Michael J., editor. Conversations with Norman Mailer. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1988.

—. “Mailer’s Cosmology.” Modern Language Study, vol. 12, no. 3, Summer 1982, pp. 18-29.

—. Norman Mailer: A Double Life. NY: Simon and Schuster, 2013.

—, and Donna Pedro Lennon. Norman Mailer: Works and Days. Shavertown, PA: Sligo Press, 2000.

Lester, Julius. “Race and Revolution: Hexagram 49—Fire and Water.” Black Review, no. 1, 1971, pp. 68-86.

Levine, Andrea. “’The (Jewish) White Negro’: Norman Mailer’s Racial Bodies.” MELUS, vol. 28, no. 2, Summer 2003, pp.59-81.

Lindner, Robert M. Rebel Without a Cause: The Story of a Criminal Psychopath. NY: Grune and Stratton, 1944.

Lott, Eric. Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2013.

Louvre, Alf. “The Reluctant Historians: Sontag, Mailer and American Culture Critics in the 1960s.” Prose Studies, vol. 9, no. 1, 1986, pp. 47-61.

Lucas, Gerald R. “Teaching Norman Mailer in the Cloud.” The Mailer Review, vol. 7, no. 1, Fall 2013, pp. 

Mailer, Adele. The Last Party: Scenes from My Life with Norman Mailer. NY: Barricade Books, 1997.

Mailer, Norman. “Advertisement for ‘Hip, Hell, and the Navigator.” Advertisements for Myself. NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1959, p. 376.

—. “Brooklyn Minority Report.” Esquire, (June 1960), pp. 129+.

—. “The Hip and the Square.” Advertisements for Myself. NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1959, pp. 424-425.

—. “Hipster and Beatnik: A Footnote to ‘The White Negro’.” Advertisements for Myself. NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1959, pp. 372-75.

—. “Mailer’s Reply.” Advertisements for Myself. NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1959, pp. 362-365.

—. “Mailer’s Reply.” Advertisements for Myself. NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1959, pp. 369-371.

—. “Note to ‘Reflections on Hip’.” Advertisements for Myself. NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1959, p. 359.

—. The Selected Letters of Norman Mailer. J. Michael Lennon, editor. NY: Random House, 2014.

—. “Sixth Advertisement For Myself.” Advertisements for Myself. NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, pp. 331-336.

—. The Spooky Art: Thoughts on Writing. NY: Random House, 2004.

Malaquais, Jean. Reflections on Hip.” Advertisements for Myself by Norman Mailer. NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1959, pp. 359-362.

Manso, Peter. Mailer: His Life and Times. NY: Washington Square Press. 2008.

Mantzaris, Alexandros. “Contradictory Syntheses: Norman Mailer’s Left Conservatism and the Problematic of ‘Totalitarianism’.” The Mailer Review, vol. 5, no. 1, Fall 2011, pp. 337-346.

Margolies, Edward. “Untitled.” Review of Strangers in the Land by Eric J. Sundquist, African American Review, vol. 41, no. 4, Winter 2007, pp. 816-817.

Martinez, Manuel Luis. Countering the Counterculture: Recording Postwar American Dissent from Jack Kerouac to Tomas Rivera. Madison, WI: The Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 2003.

Martschukat, J. “Men in Gray Flannel Suits: Troubling Masculinities in 1950s America.” Gender Forum, issue 32, 2011, pp. 1-7.

Marx, Gary T. “The White Negro and the Negro White.” Phylon, vol. 28, no. 2, 1967, pp. 168-77.

McKinley, Maggie. “Exploring the Mystery of Marilyn.” Review of Marilyn Monroe by Norman Mailer/Burt Stern, The Mailer Review, vol. 7, no. 1, Fall 2013, pp. 407-411.

—. “Mailer’s Modern Myth: Reexamining Violence and Masculinity in An American Dream.” The Mailer Review, vol. 6, no. 1, Fall 2012, pp. 158-171.

—. Masculinity and the Paradox of Violence in American Fiction, 1950-1975. NY: Bloomsbury, 2015.

Melnick, Jeffrey Paul. “Some Notes on the Erotics of Black-Jewish Relations.” Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies, vol. 23, no. 4, Summer 2005, pp. 9-25.

Merrill, Robert. “Norman Mailer’s Early Nonfiction: The Art of Self-Revelation.” Western Humanities Review, vol. 28, 1974, pp. 1-12.

Messenger, Christian K. “Norman Mailer: Boxing and the Art of His Narrative.” Modern Fiction Studies, vol. 33, no.1, Spring 1987, pp. 85-104.

Miller, Gabriel. “A Small Trumpet of Defiance: Politics and the Buried Life in Norman Mailer’s Early Nonfiction.” Politics and the Muse: Studies in the Politics of Recent American Literature. Adam. J. Sorkin, editor. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1989, pp. 79-92.

Mills, Hillary. Mailer: A Biography. NY: Empire Books, 1982.

Monson, Ingrid. “The Problem with White Hipness: Race, Gender, and Cultural Conceptions in Jazz Historical Discourse.” Journal of the American Musicological Society, vol. 48, no. 3, Autumn 1995, pp. 396-422.

Moore, Robert L. “We’re Cool, Mom and Dad Are Swell: Basic Slang and Generational Shifts in Values.” American Speech, vol. 79, no. 1, Spring 2004, pp. 59-86.

Mosser, Jason. “The Beatster, the White Negro, and the Evolution of the Hipster in Fight Club.” The Mailer Review, vol. 9. no. 1, Fall 2015, pp. 85-98.

—. “Norman Mailer and the Oxford English Dictionary.” The Mailer Review, vol. 8, no. 1, Fall 2014, pp. 102-110.

Nadel, Alan. “Fiction and the Cold War.” The Cambridge Companion to American Fiction after 1945. John N. Duvall, editor. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2012, pp. 167-181.

Newman, Paul B. “The Jew as Existentialist.” The North American Review, vol. 250, no. 3, July 1965, pp. 48-55.

Ohmann, Richard. “Criticism.” Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature, vol. 6, no. 2, Summer 1965, pp. 250-266.

Olshaker, Mark. “Words with Friends.” Review of Norman Mailer: A Double Life by J. Michael Lennon, The Mailer Review, vol. 7, no. 1, 2013, pp. 384-401.

O’Neil, Paul. “The Only Rebellion Around.” Life Magazine, vol. 47, no. 22, (Nov. 30, 1959), pp. 115+.

Petigny, Alan. “Norman Mailer, “The White Negro,” and New Conceptions of the Self in Postwar America. The Mailer Review, vol. 1, no. 1, Fall 2007, pp. 184-193.

Podhoretz, Norman. “The Know-Nothing Bohemians.” Partisan Review, vol. 25, no. 2, Spring 1958, pp. 305+.

Poirier, Richard. Norman Mailer. NY: Viking Press, 1972.

—. The Performing Self: Compositions, Decompositions in the Languages of Contemporary Life. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1992.

Polsky, Ned. “Reflections on Hip.” Advertisements for Myself by Norman Mailer. NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1959, pp. 365-369.

Radford, Jean. Norman Mailer: A Critical Study. NY: The Macmillan Press, Ltd., 1975.

Rainwater, Lee. “Crucible of Identity: The Negro Lower-Class Family.” Dedalus, vol. 95, no. 1, Winter 1966, pp. 172-216.

Redding, Arthur. Turncoats, Traitors, and Fellow Travelers: Culture and politics of the Early Cold War. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2008.

Regnier, Paul. “Writing from the Center and from the Periphery of Culture: Norman Mailer and Don Delillo.” The Mailer Review vol. 7, no. 1, Fall 2013, pp. 260-271.

Ren, Hujun. “Norman Mailer in China: Criticism and Translation.” The Mailer Review, vol. 7, no. 1, Fall 2013, pp. 119-133.

Rollyson, Carl E. The Lives of Norman Mailer: A Biography. NY: Paragon House, 1999.

Rosenshield, Gary. “Crime and Redemption, Russian and American Style: Dostoyevsky, Buckley, Mailer, Styron and Their Wards.” The Slavic and Eastern European Journal, vol. 42, no. 4, Winter 1998, pp. 677-709.

Ross, Andrew. No Respect: Intellectuals & Popular Culture. NY: Routledge, 1989.

Roszak, Theodore. The Making of a Counter-Culture: Reflections on the Technocratic Society and Its Youthful Opposition. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1968.

Savran, David. Taking It Like a Man: White Masculinity, Masochism, and Contemporary American Culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1998.

Schrag, Peter. Decline of the WASP. 2nd ed. NY: Simon and Schuster, 1971.

Schulz, Max F. “Mailer’s Divine Comedy.” Contemporary Literature, vol. 9, no. 1, Winter 1968, pp. 36-57.

Scott, Nathan A., Jr. Three American Moralists: Mailer, Bellow, Trilling. South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1973.

Sermeus, Martjin. “Norman Mailer’s Myth-Making in An American Dream and ‘The White Negro’.” The Mailer Review, vol. 5, no. 1, Fall 2011, pp. 347-66.

Sheatsley, Paul B. “White Attitudes toward the Negro.” Dedalus, vol. 95, no. 1, Winter 1966, pp. 217-238.

Shoemaker, Steve. “Norman Mailer’s ‘White Negro’: Historical Myth or Mythical History?” Twentieth Century Literature, vol. 37, no. 3, Autumn 1991, pp. 343-360.

Sipiora, Phillip. Preface. Mind of an Outlaw: Selected Essays by Norman Mailer. NY: Random House, 2013, pp. xvii-xxiv.

—. “The Complications of Norman Mailer: A Conversation with J. Michael Lennon.” The Mailer Review, vol. 7, no. 1, Fall 2013, pp. 23-65.

Skloot, Robert. “The Theater and the Crisis of Language”. Journal of Aesthetic Education, Vol. 6, No. 4, Oct., 1972, pp. 63-75.

Solomon, Robert C., editor. Introduction. Existentialism. 2nd ed. NY: Oxford Press, 2005, pp. xi- xx.

Solotaroff, Robert. Down Mailer’s Way. Urbana, IL: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1974.

Stephenson, Gregory. The Daybreak Boys: Essays on the Literature of the Beat Generation. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1990.

Stern, Richard G. and Robert F. Lucid. “Hip, Hell and the Navigator.” The Western Review 23 (Winter 1959), pp. 101-09.

Stratton, Richard. “Mailer Matters.” The Mailer Review, vol. 6, no. 1, Fall 2012, pp. 61-66.

—. “Norman Mailer on Pot.” High Times, no. 347, (November-December, 2004), pp. 44+.

Stuart, Lyle. “An Intimate Interview with Norman Mailer.” Expose, no. 49, Dec. 1955, pp.1+.

Sundquist, Eric J.  Strangers in the Land: Blacks, Jews, Post-Holocaust America. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005.

Tallman, Warren. “Kerouac’s Sound.” The Tamarack Review, Spring 1959, pp. 58-74.

Tanner, Tony. “On the Parapet.” Critical Quarterly, vol. 12, no. 2, Summer 1970, pp. 70-101.

Taylor, D. “Three Lean Cats in a Hall of Mirrors: James Baldwin, Norman Mailer, and Eldridge Cleaver on Race and Masculinity.” Texas Studies in Language and Literature, vol. 52, no. 1, 2010, pp. 70-101.

Tien, Morris Wei-hsin. “The Existential Politics of Norman Mailer: A Study of His Non-Fiction Prose of the Sixties.” American Studies, vol. 15, no. 1, March 1985, pp. 1-51.

Tom, Patricia Vettel. “Bruce Davidson’s Gang Photographs and Outlaw Masculinity.” Art Journal, vol. 56, no.2, Summer 1997, pp. 69-74.

Trilling, Diana. “The Radical Moralism of Norman Mailer.” Encounter, vol. 19, no. 5, (Nov. 1962), pp. 45-56.

Villa, Judith. “Untitled.” Review of Sentenced to Death: The American Novel and Capital Punishment by David Guest. Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature, vol. 51, no. 2, 199, pp. 56-59.

Wakefield, Dan. New York in the 1950s. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1992.

Wald, Gayle. Crossing the Line: Racial Passing in Twentieth-Century U.S. Literature and Culture. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2000.

Wallace, Michele. Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman. NY: Verso, 1990.

Walser, Robert, ed. Keeping Time: Readings in Jazz History. 2nd ed. NY: Oxford UP, 2015.

Wasson, Richard. “Untitled.” Review of The Making of a Counterculture by Theodore Roszak, College English, vol. 31, no. 6, Mar. 1970, pp. 624-628.

Watson, Stephen. The Birth of the Beat Generation: Visionaries, Rebels, and Hipsters, 1944-1960. NY: Pantheon Books, 1995.

Weatherby, W. J.  Squaring Off: Mailer vs. Baldwin. NY: Mason/Charter, 1977.

Wenke, Joe. Mailer’s America. Stamford, CT. Trans Uber LLC, 2013.

Whalen-Bridge, John. “The Myth of the American Adam in Late Mailer.” Connotations. Vol. 5, issue 2, 1992, pp. 304-22.

—. “Some New American Adams: Politics and the Novel into the Nineties.” Studies in the Novel, vol. 24, issue 2, 1992, pp. 187-200.

—, and Angela Oon. “Washed by the Swells of Time: Reading Mailer, 1998- 2008.” The Mailer Review, vol. 3, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 212-243.

Whaley, Preston, Jr. Blows Like a Horn: Beat Writing, Jazz, Style, and Markets in the Transformation of U.S. Culture. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2004.

White, Miles. From Jim Crow to Jay-Z: Race, Rap, and the Performance of Masculinity. Urbana, IL: Univ. of Illinois Press, 2011.

Whiting, Frederick. “Stronger, Smarter, and Less Queer: ‘The White Negro’ and Mailer’s Third Man”. Women’s Studies Quarterly Vol. 35, No. ¾, Fall-Winter 2005, pp. 189-214.

Whitmer, Peter O., and Bruce VanWyngarden. “Aquarius Rerevisited: 2007.” Introduction. Aquarius Revisited: Seven Who Created the Sixties Counterculture That Changed America. NY: Kensington Publishing Corp., 2007, pp. ix-xxxv.

Wollheim, Richard. “Living Like Heroes.” New Statesman, 29 September 1961, pp. 443-45.

Woods, William Crawford. “The ‘Passed’ White Negro: Brossard and Mailer at the Roots of Hip.” Review of Contemporary Fiction, vol.7, no. 1, 1987, pp. 94-102. 

Yaffe, David. “White Negroes and Native Sons: Jazz and Writing in America.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, May 14, vol. 50, issue 36, 2004, pp. B7-10.

Zirakzadeh, Cyrus Ernesto. “Political Prophecy in Contemporary American Literature: the Left- Conservative Vision of Norman Mailer.” The Review of Politics, vol. 69, no. 4, Fall 2007, pp. 625-649.